Given an array containing numbers from 1 to N, with one number missing, find the missing number

You can find the missing number in an array containing numbers from 1 to N (with one number missing) by calculating the sum of the first N natural numbers and then subtracting the sum of the given array. The difference will be the missing number. Here's a Python function to accomplish this:

            def find_missing_number(arr, N):
                expected_sum = N * (N + 1) // 2
                actual_sum = sum(arr)
                missing_number = expected_sum - actual_sum
                return missing_number
            # Example usage:
            arr = [1, 2, 4, 6, 3, 7, 8]
            N = len(arr) + 1  # N is the size of the original array + 1
            result = find_missing_number(arr, N)
            print("Missing number:", result)        

In this example, the find_missing_number function takes the array arr and the size N as parameters. It calculates the expected sum of the first N natural numbers using the formula N * (N + 1) // 2 and then subtracts the sum of the given array to find the missing number.

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