What are WebSockets in the context of HTML-5

WebSockets in HTML5 are a communication protocol that provides full-duplex communication channels over a single, long-lived connection between a client (such as a web browser) and a server. It enables real-time, bidirectional communication, allowing data to be transmitted between the client and server with low latency.

Key features of WebSockets:

  1. Full-duplex Communication: WebSockets enable simultaneous two-way communication, allowing both the client and server to send messages to each other independently.
  2. Persistent Connection: Unlike traditional HTTP connections, which are stateless and request-based, WebSockets maintain a persistent connection, enabling continuous data exchange without the overhead of establishing new connections for each interaction.
  3. Low Latency: Due to its persistent nature, WebSockets significantly reduce latency and overhead compared to techniques like polling or long polling, making it suitable for real-time applications.
  4. Compatibility: WebSockets are supported by modern web browsers and are available through standardized APIs, making it easier for developers to implement and use them in web applications.

Usage of WebSockets:

  1. Real-Time Applications: WebSockets are commonly used in real-time applications, such as chat applications, online gaming, collaborative tools, financial trading platforms, live sports updates, and more.
  2. Push Notifications: They are used to push updates or notifications from the server to the client in real time without the need for the client to constantly poll the server for changes.
  3. Live Data Streaming: WebSockets facilitate live data streaming, allowing continuous updates and display of real-time data, such as stock market updates, sensor data from IoT devices, etc.

Example usage of WebSockets in JavaScript:

To establish a WebSocket connection in JavaScript, the WebSocket object is used. Here's a basic example:

            // Create a WebSocket connection
            const socket = new WebSocket('wss://example.com/socket');
            // Event handler when the connection is opened
            socket.onopen = function(event) {
                console.log('WebSocket connection opened');
            // Event handler for receiving messages
            socket.onmessage = function(event) {
                console.log('Message received:', event.data);
            // Event handler when an error occurs
            socket.onerror = function(error) {
                console.error('WebSocket error:', error);
            // Event handler when the connection is closed
            socket.onclose = function(event) {
                console.log('WebSocket connection closed');

WebSockets offer a powerful way to establish efficient, real-time communication between web browsers and servers, enabling the development of interactive and responsive web applications.

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