What is closure in JavaScript

In JavaScript, a closure is a combination of a function and the lexical environment within which that function was declared. This lexical environment consists of the variables that were in scope at the time the closure was created. In simpler terms, a closure allows a function to retain access to the variables from its outer (enclosing) scope even after the outer function has finished executing.

Here's a simple example to illustrate closures:

            function outerFunction() {
                let outerVariable = "I am from the outer function";
                function innerFunction() {
                return innerFunction;
            const closureExample = outerFunction();
            closureExample(); // Outputs: "I am from the outer function"

In this example, innerFunction is defined inside outerFunction, and it has access to outerVariable. When outerFunction is called, it returns innerFunction. Even though outerFunction has completed execution, innerFunction still has access to outerVariable due to the closure.

Closures are powerful because they allow you to create private variables and encapsulate functionality. They are commonly used in scenarios such as implementing data hiding, creating factory functions, and managing state in functional programming.

Here's another example demonstrating closure in the context of a counter:

            function createCounter() {
                let count = 0;
                return function () {
            const counter = createCounter();
            counter(); // Outputs: 1
            counter(); // Outputs: 2            

In this case, createCounter returns a function that, when invoked, increments and logs the count variable. The count variable is enclosed within the scope of the returned function, creating a closure.

Closures are a fundamental concept in JavaScript and play a crucial role in enabling many design patterns and techniques in the language. They are often used in conjunction with functions that are passed as arguments to other functions (higher-order functions) and are an essential part of the language's expressive power

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